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Horizontal Mills in Ireland

Horizontal mills exploit water power for various tasks. Today we are still familiar with similar methods of harnessing energy using water power as waterwheels are still in use.
Generally speaking, a horizontal mill has a 'horizontal' wheel which water is channelled on to via a system of races controlled by a sluice gate. The wheel turns an axle which is attached to a grinding stone or a gear mecchanism of some sort.
Various writers at the end of the Middle Ages describe and illustrate the machinery found in a horizontal mill.
These include Ramelli's 1588 Les Diverse ed Artificioso Machine and Georgius Agricola's De Re Metallica (from 1556). A diagram of a relatively modern mill can be viewed here.

The terminology is also known from medieval sources in Italy as outlined here.

The extensive excavation of an early medieval settlement at Raystown, Co. Meath produced a complex of mill streams and mills.

As can be seen in this image, the base of a mill contains the undercroft with the horizontal wheel and some sort of pivot to keep the axle vertical. The superstructure has normally rotted away long ago and is no longer visible. The wheel has a series of paddles or vanes attached that are hit by the water which enters the undercroft via a flume and drives the wheel around.

Vertical watermills are also known, where the wheel is set upright and is around driven by water hitting the paddles at the bottom (known as undershot) or top (called overshot). At Nendrum, in County Down, a mill was excavated where the water was retained in a mill pond at high tide. This type is known as a tidal mill.

Milling terms in early Irish texts are also known from various sources in Ireland and Scotland and are summarised here: Mac Eoin, G. (1981) The early Irish vocabulary of mills and milling, in Studies on Early Ireland, 13-19. An diagram from Mac Eoin's paper is shown below.

Linear Earthworks in Ireland

Linear Earthworks are found in Ireland that largely date to the Iron Age.

They tend by visible as earth banks with an accompanying ditch or as a pair of ditches running for great distances across the countryside.

Such linear earthworks are generally only well preserved for short stretches and the best known examples are:
Doon of Drumsna, Co. Roscommon, the Dorsey, Co. Armagh, Black Pig’s Dyke in Counties. Armagh, Monaghan, Cavan and Leitrim; Worm’s Ditch – another name for Black Pig’s Dyke; the Dane’s Cast in Co. Armagh and Co. Down and An Claidh Dubh which survives in various sections over a very large area of Cork and into Limerick. There is also an earthwork called An Claidh Ruadh in Co Kerry and Co Limerick.

Their purpose and function are unclear. They may have indicated some sort of territorial boundaries, acted as
obstacles to cattle rustling or some other use that is not clear today. Broadly speaking they all date to the Iron Age.

Excavations at the Doon of Drumsna in Co. Roscommon showed that it dates to 400-100 BC.

The complex around the Dorsey, Co. Armagh and the Black Pigs Dyke and Worms Ditch all appear to be part of the same earthwork. Excavations have repeatedly produced Iron Age dates mainly falling between 150 and 90 BC.

The Dane’s Cast in Co. Down has never been investigated and it is unclear whether it is Iron Age or possibly medieval as it is somewhat similar to the late medieval Pale Ditch around the English enclave at Dublin.

Investigations of An Claidh Dubh also suggest that it dates to before 100 AD.

For more click here.

Viking expansion into Ireland and beyond

Viking Expansions into Ireland and beyond

Forget the old story about vikings carousing the seas looting and pillaging.
In the centuries before the vikings began to expand across the Atlantic, there were 'early medieval emporia' in place around the Irish coast that appear to have been the main contact points for traders bringing goods into Ireland (and Scotland). Whether this was because of a perceieved taboo over dealing with foreigners (a way to both keep out disease and protect your own position by ensuring only you get to meet them).
A probable example was found on Dunnyneill Island, County Down and another example is a site like Dalkey Island.
Finds include exotic objects like pottery imported from the area of the former Roman Empire like E-ware and glass.
From the eighth century AD onwards, houses and objects typical of Norway and other parts of Scandinavia begin to appear in the Northern and Western Isles of Scotland and down into the Irish Sea area, at sites like 
Underhoull in Shetland and Hamar also on Shetland.
Excavations south of Dublin at Cherrywood found objects that suggest Norse settlement near Loughlinstown which actually means 'the town of the Lochlainn' - Lochlainn is a word used by the Irish to refer to the Norse. Some of the structural remains suggested that, in an early phase, a longhouse had been built on the site.The large enclosure in which the site was built was much earlier in date and had been used for burials in the 6th-7th century AD. It was then abandoned but apparently re-used in the 9th century AD when the first of several phases of structures were built. The longhouse (see the various structures shown on this plan) is dated by its position within the sequence of occupation at the site.
The earliest identified phase was the enclosed cemetery in the sixth/seventh century AD. Structure 4 dated to 680-890 AD and Pit (F535) was dated to the late ninth century AD or slightly later, based on a fragment of a whale bone plaque which was present. Structure 1, the possible longhouse, dated to before 1020-1190 AD. A kiln, dated by burnt oats to 1020-1190 AD was followed by two further structures, Structures 2 and 3, probably dating to before 1020-1230.
Many of the finds do not necessarily imply anything about the occupant's identities as they would be typically found on an Irish or Norse site of the same date. The whale bone plaque is typical of finds associated with Norse woman, such as this one from Orkney. A fragment of a similar object was recovered from the Norse graves found in Kilmainham near Dublin city centre.
One of the structures at Cherrywood was similar to buildings erected by the Norse in the urban centres of Ireland around the same date. The finds, though, are equally typical of contemporary rural Irish sites.
For more about Cherrywood click here .
A similar structure was found at Llanbedrgoch, Anglesey in Wales showing that, in this period, the Norse maintained contact with the scattered Norse communities around the Irish Sea and beyond.

Another find from Cherrywood, a silver ingot, while unprovenanced, represents one of the reasons why the Norse are important in Ireland’s links to the outside world – the silver trade - one of the possible reasons that the Scandinavians continued to spread around Europe re-establishing trade routes from the Mediterranean up into Northern Europe. Eventually they also began to explore the seas to the west.

The Vinland Sagas
Two short Icelandic Sagas discuss the settlement of Greenland the first voyages to the New World:
Saga of the Greenlanders (Grænlendinga saga).
Eirik the Red’s Saga (Eiríks saga rauða)
Both sagas refer to events 970-1030 A.D., and both were composed much later, 1220-1280 A.D.
The sagas were written independently and record oral history – unlike Njal’s Saga, there was little if any literary reworking, reshaping or editing.
(Njal’s Saga dates from the 13th century and describes the progress of a series of blood feuds. Its author is believed to have lived in southeast Iceland and the events occur between 960 and 1020).

Both sagas contain many of the same details, though the elements are recast into a different sequence or placed into a different context.
Fanciful and legendary elements in the sagas caused them to be rejected by historians until Helge Ingstad and Anne Stine located the remains of Viking settlements at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland in 1960.
Artifacts from excavations there proved that Norsemen had reached Canada c. 1000 A.D.
Both sagas deal with other events as well, especially with the settlement of Greenland and with the conflict between the Heathen and Christian religions.
The settlement on Vinland was short-lived, lasting only a few years. Conflicts with the natives (Skraelings) probably hastened its demise.
The settlements on Greenland lasted from 985 to 1350 (Western Settlement) and to c. 1480 (Eastern Settlement). The cause of abandonment is unclear and has been discussed by various authors including Jared Diamond in Collapse.
The Greenland settlement was not entirely self-sufficient. Marginal land was used for raising sheep during the medieval warm climate which meant that cold snaps and periodic shift in temperature threatened the available grazing and size of flocks.They had also become Christianised (this is Hvalsey church) and some of their cultural practices, defined by their religious observance and Christian morals, were expensive and difficult to maintain in such an environment.
The real attraction of Greenland was the hunting, especially for arctic specialities walrus (ivory), polar bear, gyrfalcons etc., which were prized luxury items on the continent.
Some trade took place with the natives, although the Greenlanders were never able to establish the same relationship they had with the Sami, for example.
Helge Ingstad (1899-2001) unearthed the ruins of an ancient Norse village near L’Anse aux Meadows on the north coast of Newfoundland, conclusively proving that the Vikings has established a settlement in North America 1000 years previously.

A.D. 990, Leif Eriksson, son of Erik the Red, exploring to the west, finds and names several new areas:
Slabrock Land-Baffin Island
Forest Land-Labrador and Newfoundland
Wineland-Northern Maine/New Brunswick.
Came into contact with "wild groups" of people.
His brother, Thorvald, was killed by natives and buried near the Bay of Fundy.
At L’Anse Aux Meadows, around 1000 AD, 8 sod wall houses were occupied by the Norse.

There are many theories as to the fate of the Greenland and American Vikings.

Navan Fort

Navan Fort, Co. Armagh
Navan Fort is one of a complex of monuments located to the west of Armagh city. The main mound and enclosure are open to visitors.
This area features in mythology such as the Táin Bó Cuailgne (Cattle Raid of Cooley) and other tales involving Cú Chulainn. In this tales the site is referred to as Eamhain Macha. This had indicated that the site had significance in the early medieval period but its prehistoric importance was unproven.
Believed to be indicated on Ptolemy’s Map (possibly based on 2nd century BC sources) as ‘Isamnion’ which is an earlier form of ‘Eamhain’ (from which it is derived by syncopation – with syllables being lost: I(s)AM(ni)ON becomes IAMON, or Eamhain).

Modern intensive research has indicated that a number of sites are present in the area including Haughey’s Fort, a Late Bronze Age hillfort. A number of sections were excavated across the lines of the ramparts by Prof. Jim Mallory of Queen's University Belfast (see various papers in the journal Emania).
Only the ditches survived as no traces of banks were recorded. The ditch was waterlogged allowing for the survival of wooden finds and other organic material. Traces of three concentric ditches have been recorded, although it is not clear if each completed a full circuit.
Investigation of the interior produced evidence of various pits and postholes suggesting there were structures within the innermost ditch.
Finds from the interior include bronze rings, a gold stud and a fragment of the handle of a decorated bronze vessel.There was also a stone with rock art from pit in the interior.
Other sites in the Navan complex include the King’s Stables, an artificial pool of similar date to Haughey's Fort.
At Tamlaght, at the edge of an area of swamp, a hoard of an Irish Late Bronze Age sword and two central European sheet bronze vessels was found.
Navan Fort itself was excavated by Dudley Waterman 1963-72, later by Jim Mallory and Chris Lynn
The overall diameter of the main enclosure is 286 m and a  number of internal sites are visible: Ringditch (Site A) and Mound (Site B). Geophysics indicated a 30 m diameter double circle (between Sites A and B), known as Site C.
The morphology of the enclosure is unusual in that the bank is on the outside of the ditch. This is typical of other sites of similar date (Iron Age) and status (remembered as 'royal' sites in the 7th and 8th century AD).
Jim Mallory carried out excavations on the site in the late 1990s and and found an oak that dated to 95 BC.

Site A
Excavation indicated a complex history (see here for plans etc).
Basic Phasing:
(Phase A) – a series of structures with concentric slot trenches (diameters 16.6 m, 18.8 m and 20.3 m), postholes survive in the inner slot. No evidence of entrance. Associated finds include coarse pottery, charcoal suggested a date of 4th century BC to 1st century AD.
(Phase B) - again structures with concentric slot trenches, with a 2 m wide gap. Entrance to the east, large central posthole – slots and posthole cut outer slot of Phase A structure but not the inner slots – part of the same building as the inner slots or a later feature?
Two extended inhumation burials outside the Phase B structure, one in a nailed coffin and are no doubt later in date.

A 5.5 m wide and 2 m deep ditch was opened across site A, enclosing an area 37 m in diameter, with some traces of an external bank. A terminal of a bronze brooch of 9th/10th century AD was recovered from 0.90 m above the base of the ditch.

Site C
This was subsequently investigated by Chris Lynn in 2001.

Site B
Phase 1: scatters of pottery, flint, three polished stone axe fragments.
Phase 2: episode of ploughing
Phase 3: three subdivisions (Phase 3i; 3ii; 3iii).
3i: circular ditch, 5 m wide and 1 m deep, enclosing an area 45 m in diameter (cobbled causeway to the east). Large ring of posts, 4 m apart, 4-5 m inside the line of the ditch. Available dates are 1600-1200 BC for the posts and 900-550 BC for the ditch.
Phase 3i: circular ditch, 5 m wide and 1 m deep, enclosing an area 45 m in diameter (cobbled causeway to the east). Large ring of posts, 4 m apart, 4-5 m inside the line of the ditch. Available dates are 1600-1200 BC for the posts and 900-550 BC for the ditch.Phase 3: three subdivisions (Phase 3i; 3ii; 3iii).
Phase 3ii: complex sequence of timber structures.
Phase 3iii: last set of ring slots, date 200-95 BC.
Finds from Phase 3 include sherds of coarse ware, shale armlets, glass beads, a bronze bar toggle, a fragment of a winged chape, part of a socketed bronze sickle, a tiny socketed bronze axe and a bronze pin with a spiral-ribbed head; clay mould fragments, iron objects, ring-headed pin, and a Barbary Ape skull (ring slot C2., dated to 390-20 BC).
Animal bone: twice as much pig as cattle, little sheep or goat.
Phase 4: A 40 metre circular structure was erected (the central post was dated to 95-94 BC).
Phase 5: A mound of stones was erected over the 40 m structure.

Navan Fort has broad parallels with sites like Knockaulin (Dun Ailinne) which was excavated by Bernard Wailes (see here). Also features at Tara and Rathcroghan.

Angles, Saxons, Normans ...

Angles, Saxons, Normans …

Britain from Rome to the Normans
Just prior to the Visigoth sack of Rome in 410, Roman troops were withdrawn from England (408).
Angles, Saxons, and Jutes then invaded the British Isles.
This was an age of many kings, but no king of England.
Sometimes a given king would have great power over other kingdoms—such as Aethelberht, King of Kent.
Seven major Kingdoms emerge (often referred to as the Heptarchy).

These non-Roman 'barbarians' – Saxons, Angles, and Jutes – are depicted as invading Britain by sea in the fifth century in the Passion of St Edmund.
Gildas writing in the 6th century (see De Excidio Britanniae), described the collapse of Roman power and the arrival of mercenaries in the 5th century.
Bede wrote a history of 8th-century Anglo-Saxon kingdoms (Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum):
‘Those who came over were of three of the more powerful peoples of Germany: the Saxons, the Angles and the Jutes’
Thus Jutes, Angles, Saxons and Frisians arrived in the fifth century, with Anglo-Saxon kingdoms emerging in the seventh century.

The Undley Bracteate is a 5th century find from Undley Common, Suffolk.
It is the earliest known inscription in Anglo-Frisian ‘Futhorc’ (as opposed to ‘Futhark’).
The image is Contantine the Great with Romulus and Remus suckled by the wolf.
Futhorc, like Anglo-Saxon runes and Germanic ‘Elder’ runes and ‘Younger’ runes were generally replaced on Christianisation.

The Angles came from Angeln (according to Bede their whole tribe came)Saxons from Niedersachsen
Jutes from Jutland
Also smaller groups of:
Frisians (their name survives in placenames like Fresham, Freston, Friston)
Flemings (as in placenames like Flemby, Flempton)
Swabians (apparently their name survives in the placename Swaffham)
Franks (whose name survives in placenames like Frankton, Frankley)

Angles, Saxons, Jutes etc...
These groups may be coeval with the Ingvaeones, as described in Tacitus's Germania, (AD98), a West Germanic cultural group living in the Jutland, Holstein, Frisia and the Danish islands.
The postulated common group of closely related dialects of the Ingvaeones is called Ingvaeonic or North Sea Germanic.
Major issues
Origins of ‘the English’: debate and discussion – several theories tend to dominate.
Was there massive invasion & migration?
Or, a takeover by small powerful groups?
Or, a slow transformation as people abandon ‘Roman’ ways, and adopt Anglo-Saxon customs?

The building shown below is a typical Anglo-Saxon ‘grubenhaus’
Contact and Migration
Finds of silver sceattas of the porcupine-standard series attributed to mints in Frisia
The sceats here are 7th century (right and below) and 8th century (below right)
Continuity ...
But, also much archaeological evidence for continuity of British ways such as building styles
Cowdery’s Down, Hants
Highdown, Sussex
Highdown in use as a cemetery by [pagan] Saxons, including a mixture of inhumations and cremations placed in urns
At the same time a Romano-British villa at nearby Northbrook, less than a mile away, was still in use by native Christians.
Anglo-Saxon architecture
Earliest surviving architecture is 7th century.
In the north of England, churches are narrow with square ended chancels.
In the south, churches had apsidal ends separated from the nave by a triple arch opening, for example at Reculver.
Anglo-Saxon architecture
Apsidal church from Brixworth (Northamptonshire)
Arch similar to Reculver at entrance to the apsidal end

Anglo-Saxon architecture
The most complete example of the northern type of church is at Escomb (Durham).
Old Minster, Winchester
Constructed in 648 for King Cenwalh of Wessex and Saint Birinus, diocesan cathedral by 660.
Saint Swithun buried outside it in 862.
New Minster built next to it (901), Saint Æthelwold of Winchester followed by his successor, Saint Alphege, almost completely rebuilt the minster on a vast scale during their monastic reforms of the 970s.
Old Minster demolished in 1093.
Major kingdoms:
East Anglia
Minor kingdoms:
Kingdom of Lindsey
Middle Anglia
Major kingdoms:
East Anglia
Minor kingdoms:
Kingdom of Lindsey
Middle Anglia
Laws of Aethelberht
Laws of Aethelberht
Sutton Hoo
Two Anglo-Saxon cemeteries of the 6th century and early 7th century, one of which contained an undisturbed ship burial.
Use of the site culminated at a time when the ruler (Raedwald) of East Anglia held senior power among the English people, and played a dynamic (if ambiguous) part in the establishment of Christian rulership in England.
The ship-burial probably dates from the early 7th century and was excavated in 1939.

Sutton Hoo

Anglo-Saxon Art: Fuller Brooch
Late 9th century brooch, found in Normandy.
11.4 cm disc of hammered sheet silver inlaid with black niello.
The centre is decorated with the five senses.
In the middle is Sight
Taste (top left)
Smell (top right)
Touch (bottom right)
Hearing (bottom left)
The outer border consists of humans, bird, animal and plant motifs.
Unusually it does not represent divinity.
Anglo-Saxon Art: Manuscripts
Illuminated Anglo-Saxon manuscripts survive, such as the Benedictional of St. Æthelwold and Leofric Missal drawing on Hiberno-Saxon art, and, Carolingian and Byzantine art for style and iconography.
Combines northern ornamental traditions with Mediterranean figural traditions.
Anglo-Saxon Art: Manuscripts
Dates between 963 and 984. Contains a Latin inscription which describes how it was made:
A bishop, the great Æthelwold, whom the Lord had made patron of Winchester, ordered a certain monk subject to him to write the present book . . . He commanded also to be made in this book many frames well adorned and filled with various figures decorated with many beautiful colours and with gold. This book the Boanerges aforesaid caused to be indicted for himself . . . Let all who look upon this book pray always that after the term of the flesh I may abide in heaven Û Godeman the scribe, as a suppliant, earnestly asks this…

West Stow
Hamlet of West Stow, Suffolk
Occupied during the 5th–7th centuries
5 acres excavated – 1960s & 1970s
7 larger house = family halls? c.12m long; hearth; S. side door
60 Sunken-featured buildings (grubenhauser)
West Stow: finds
Yeavering, Northumbria
Anglo-Saxon villa and royal palace – earliest known (Bede: Ad Gefrin)
Identified 1949 aerial photography
Excavated 1950s & 1960s by Brian Hope Taylor
Great enclosure: circular entrance works – a corral for animals?
Archaeological evidence for fire – all buildings burnt to the ground (in AD633: King Edwin killed; massacres in Northumbria).

Yeavering, Northumbria
Bronze Age burial mound with large upright pole: Focus for pagan Anglo-Saxon burials? Building aid?
The Great Hall: 7th century. Massive timbers, communal centre: Feasting, music, singing, royal ceremonies
Area ruled but not peopled by Anglo-Saxons?
Theatre: cuneus
Unique in A-S England
Triangular stepped structure w/ stage
Performance, assembly?

Alfred the Great (871-899)
King of Wessex who wielded power over all of so-called ‘Heptarchy’ (see language map)
Defeats newest arrivals (Danes)
Issued a Code of Laws for all the realm
Began the English Navy
Commissioned the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (often taken as a measure of the stability of his reign)

From Alfred to William, 899-1066
Alfred’s successors were not great rulers—Ethelred the Redeless (stupid), for example—and the Vikings under King Cnut actually assumed control of the realm.
Cnut’s successor had no heirs and created a question of who would become king
3 candidates: Harold Hardrada, Harold Godwinson of Wessex, William, Duke of Normandy
William wins Battle of Hastings, October 1066
Social contract between ‘lords’ and ‘vassals’
Theoretically it is reciprocal (see diagram)
In practise in had centralising tendencies
Became the dominant political system in Europe
Becomes synonymous with the Normans
What did it replace??
Viking Towns
York, Birka, Hedeby, Dublin
Based on trade
Chattels not real estate

1000 AD
Dublin, 1170
William I—King of England (1066-1087)
Introduced Norman Feudalism into England—emphasized power of King (Salisbury Oath)
Domesday Survey
Much central authority compared to earlier governmental arrangements in England

Great Council created out of Witan
Curia Regis established
But who were these ‘Normans’??
Bayeux Tapestry, c. 1073-1088
Willliam and Harold
William’s Feast
Normandy is approximately the same region as the old church province of Rouen
Was sometimes called Brittania Nova and western Flanders.
No natural frontiers and was previously merely an administrative unit.
Viking settlers begun arriving in the 880s, divided between a small colony in Upper (or eastern) Normandy and a larger one in Lower (or western) Normandy.

In 911 AD Charles III of France gave Normandy to the Viking leader Rollo who became a Christian. Vikings helped adopt the French language and organized a strong state in Normandy.

Rollo’s grave, Rouen
Passed title to his son in 927 before his death.

From the 10th century the Norse settled and adopted the language and culture of the French majority.
After a generation or two, the Normans were generally indistinguishable from their French neighbours.
In Normandy, they adopted the growing feudal doctrines of the rest of northern France.
The old French aristocracy could trace their families back to Carolingian times.
The Normans knights rended to remain poor and land-hungry.
By 1066, Normandy had been exporting fighting horsemen for more than a generation.
Prior to 1066 and then crusades knighthood before the time of the Crusades held little social status.

Illustrated on the Bayeux Tapestry
Illustrated on the Bayeux Tapestry
Illustrated on the Bayeux Tapestry
Bayeux Tapestry showing the motte at Hastings being built.
Architecture and the early Normans
There was a resurgence in the development of distinct architectural styles under Charlemagne.
Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, 792-805
Designs for the monasteries had already been drawn up under order of Charlemagne
Developed a role as cultural/learning centers
St. Gall
Abbey at Cluny, begun 910
French monastery, Benedictine monks
Largest, most powerful monastery, 10th-12th c.
Early Christian vs. Romanesque
This is the difference in effect of a barrel vault (on the right) and the pre-existing style of roof.
Three main phases from 910 onwards (coinciding with the emerging Norman state).
The greatest monastic Romanesque church, Cluny III (1088-1121), did not survive the French Revolution but has been reconstructed in drawings
Double-aisled church almost 137 m long, with 15 small chapels in transepts and ambulatory
Its design influenced Romanesque and Gothic churches in Burgundy and beyond, often coinciding with the spread of liturgical practices under Norman influence
Cluny III
3rd Abbey Church at Cluny
Largest church in the Christian world
Vertical emphasis
3rd Abbey Church at Cluny, 1049
Largest church in the Christian world
Like Roman basilica but more elaborate
Established ‘Romanesque’ style.
3rd Abbey Church at Cluny, 1049
Vertical emphasis was possible as the churches had very thick walls
The vault was constructed as a series of arches with the wight carried by the large pillars.
St. Sernin, c. 1080
France led the way in the development of Romanesque.
Typical Romanesque Church Plans
St. Etienne, c. 1067-1135
The term “Romanesque” itself was first used in the 19th century. The word Romanesque originally meant "in the Roman manner.“
Use of the Roman round arch, adoption of the major forms of antique Roman vaulting (contained, strong, weighty and somber style)
Most Romanesque churches retained the basic plan of the Early Christian basilica: a long, three-aisled nave intercepted by a transept and terminating in a semicircular apse crowned by a conch, or half-dome
European movement in architecture (10-12th centuries), especially in Italy, France, England and Germany

St. Etienne, Romanesque Facade
Divided into three sections

Tower of London, c. 1078-1097
Most famous Romanesque building in Britain?
Tower of London, c. 1078-1097
The interior features all shown Romanesque influence:
Round-headed windows
Round thick pillars
St. Etienne, Romanesque Facade
Divided into three sections

Tower of London, c. 1078-1097
Sculpture as Church Decoration
La Madeleine, Vezelay, France
c. 1120-1132

Manuscript paintings as inspiration for sculpture
La Madeleine, capitals
Romanesque Painting-Illuminated Manuscripts

17th Century and Industrial Revolution

Seventeenth Century and Industrial Revolution
Seventeenth century Ireland
Bartletts map from 1602.
Ireland enters the 17th century in a state of war.
This is to set the tone for much of the century.

The Rise of Europe & Imperialism con’t
Until 18th century, Europe lagged behind Asia and parts of Africa in economic development.
2 groups of factors set stage for modern economic growth and socio-political change
300 years between 14th and 17th centuries
Renaissance and Enlightenment (eventually leading to industrialisation)
European geographical expansionism

The Rise of Europe & Imperialism
Geographical Expansionism
seen as the mercantile phase of Imperialism
Enormous profits from seafaring and conquests
exploitation of technological backward non-European people (ideological justified as ‘civilising mission’)
Slave trade; Spice trade; Precious metals; exotic goods. Atlantic trade. Footholds established.
New expressions of wealth
Ole Worm’s Cabinet of Curiosities, Denmark 1655

The new found European success opens up the opportunity to collect exotica as way of illustrating the breadth of connections, wealth and power.
The Rise of Europe and Imperialism
Mercantile Imperialism
primitive accumulation (Marx);
booty capitalism (Weber);
superiority of force of Europeans “… enabled to commit every sort of injustice in those remote countries” (A. Smith).
European Renaissance & Enlightenment had created an explosion of intellectual, scientific and artistic achievements; leading to political ideas and change by the seventeenth century.
The Rise of Europe and Imperialism
During 300 years:
no significant change in European economy and society
wealth used to fight wars;
Intensifying mercantilism to raise revenues for warfare.
Also leads to extravagant consumption.
Versailles (Pierre Patel 1668).
Hunting Lodge built by Le Roy in 1631 (Louis XIII).
In 1661, Louis XIV had a huge rural retreat built here, with the most extensive gardens in the world.
By 1682, he moved his court to Versailles.
English Palladian Architecture
Queen’s House, built by Inigo Jones 1614-17 for Anne of Denmark (wife of James I) at Greenwich (beside the Palace of Greenwich).
His first building in a ‘Palladian’ style following his tour of Italy.
Introduced a classical style to English architecture.
Queen’s Palace Greenwich
This is one of Jones original plans for the façade.
The work was completed in 1635
Classical Architecture
Ground plan of the original Queen’s House (the first storey is on the right of the diagram).
Only really hosted the court until 1642 when the culture it was designed for largely disappeared in England.
Palace of Whitehall
London home of English monarchs from the 16th century.
Under James I a new Banqueting House (1619-1622) was built to a design by Inigo Jones at a cost of £15,618.
Its decoration was finished in 1634 with the completion of a ceiling by Sir Peter Paul Rubens, commissioned by Charles I (later executed in front of the building in 1649).
Jones and the Banqueting Hall
Jones confirmed his re-invention of classical architecture in England with the building.
He was heavily influenced by Italian architecture and ignored existing Jacobean forms.
Jones proposed re-design of Whitehall
Charles I commissioned a complete re-design from Jones in 1638 to incorporate the Banqueting Hall and to be built in the same style.
Ultimately, Charles could never resource the project adequately.
Plan of castle built by Archbishop Loftus in 1590.
Note the defensive features such as the corner towers (Loftus lived at the Palace at Tallaght when it was sacked in 1589).
The buildings still owe much to traditional medieval architectural styles.
Classical Architecture
A fire destroyed the rambling Palace of Whitehall in 1698 and the Banqueting Hall was one of the few buidlings to survive (see Peter Paul Ruben’s ceilings).
While the classical style was viewed as Royalist, following the Restoration (post-1660) it was the favoured building style in England.
Backdrop to these developments?
The Wars of Religion, France (1562-1598)
End with Huguenots gain political equality of sorts.
Catalonia (to 1640s)
Revolts against Spain and Barcelona, Portugal tries to regain independence from Spain
The Fronde revolts in France (1648-1653)
Messes in the Netherlands (to 1640s)
Originally a revolt against Spain, the Netherlands got drawn into the shifting allegiances of European politics
The English Civil Wars (1625-1649)
The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
Ended in Peace of Westphalia (modern diplomacy)
The emerging modern world: Tulips!
Introduced to Europe in the mid-16th century from Ottoman Empire.
Started 1593 when botanist Charles de l'Écluse had taken up a post at the University of Leiden and demonstrated that tulip bulbs would grow in the Netherlands.
Became a luxury item, classified in groups; one-coloured tulips of red, yellow, or white were known as Couleren, but it was the multicoloured Rosen (red or pink on white background), Violetten (purple or lilac on white background), and, to a lesser extent, the Bizarden (red, brown or purple on yellow background) that were the most popular.
The Tulip Bubble
In 1634 the rage for tulips among the Dutch was so great that the ordinary industry of the country was neglected, and the whole people turned to the production of tulips. As this mania increased, prices increased with it, until in 1635 merchants were known to have spent $40,000 in the purchase of forty tulips.
The Semper Augustus
A Semper Augustus, weighing only 200 grains, was thought to be cheap at $2200.
An inferior plant would readily sell for $800.
When first known, in 1636, there were only two roots of it in Holland: one belonged to a dealer in Amsterdam, and the other was owned in Haarlem.
One person offered twelve acres of valuable building land for the Haarlem tulip.
That of Amsterdam was sold for $1840, a new carriage, two gray horses, and a complete suit of harness.
A bill of sale for one single root of the Viceroy species:

Anatomy of a bubble
The demand grow until 1636.
Regular marts for their sale were opened on the Stock Exchange of Amsterdam, and at Haarlem, Leiden, and other places.
Symptoms of gambling and of time sales soon became prevalent every where. Stock-jobbers dealt largely in tulips - at first every thing rose and every body gained.
Tulip jobbers gambled on the rise and fall of bulbs, making large profits by buying when prices were low and selling when they rose.
It was believed that this mania would spread to other lands.
Nobles, citizens, farmers, mechanics, footmen, and even chimney-sweeps dabbled in tulips. Houses and lands were offered at ruinously low rates that their proceeds might be invested in bulbs that were expected to return a golden crop.
The prices of the necessaries of life rose, and houses and lands, horses and carriages, and luxuries of every sort rose with the rise of tulips: all commerce rested on a flower bed.
The Collapse
In 1636, the Dutch created a type of formal futures markets where contracts to buy bulbs at the end of the season were bought and sold.
Traders met in "colleges" at taverns and buyers were required to pay a 2.5% "wine money" fee, up to a maximum of three florins, per trade.
Neither party paid an initial margin nor a mark-to-market margin, and all contracts were with the individual counterparties rather than with the exchange.
No deliveries were ever made to fulfill these contracts because of the market collapse on 5th February 1637.
Banking continued to develope in the 17th century.
In England, commercial lending of money became more important.
Previously goldsmiths lent and changed money until, in 1640 King Charles I confiscated gold, which London merchants had deposited at the mint for safety.
Afterwards people began to deposit money with goldsmiths who gave receipts for the gold in the form of notes promising to pay on demand.
Governments needed to borrow, especially in wartime, often from wealthy individuals and later repaid them with interest from taxation.
However at the end of the 17th century the cost of fighting a war with France was colossal. So in 1694 the Bank of England was founded to provide a loan to the government.
A group of financiers put up £1.2 million. In return the bank received 8% interest on the loan and the right to issue notes. The Bank of England was also allowed to lend money and to buy and sell gold.
Rising Costs of Warfare: Artillery
The combining of shot and powder into a single unit, a cartridge, occurred in the 1620s with a simple fabric bag.
Gustavus Adolphus is identified as the general who reintroduced cannon to the battlefield - pushing the development of much lighter and smaller weapons and deploying them in far greater numbers than previously. But the outcome of battles was still determined by the clash of infantry.
Fixed fortifications were obsolete unless heavily fortified and defended.

Development of Artillery Fortifications
Marquis de Vauban, adviser to Louis XIV, major figure in late-17th century development of artillery fortifications.

Galway, 1651
Proper artillery defences required significant expenditure in the sevententh century.
Draught of proposed citadel at Dublin in 1685, by Thomas Phillips
Draught of proposed citadel at Belfast (also 1685), by Thomas Phillips
Development of Artillery Fortifications
Development of Artillery Fortifications
Development of Artillery Fortifications
Development of Artillery Fortifications
Development of Artillery Fortifications
Development of Artillery Fortifications
Development of Artillery Fortifications
Charles Fort, Kinsale
Built after 1677, incorporates latest styles of defences.
Charles Fort, Kinsale
Phillips plans show how quickly these forts were being elaborated.
August 1691
Seventeenth Century Crisis?
Eric Hobsbawn portrays this as a crisis in the old colonial system and in internal production.
Wealth had grown too fast, and was put to unproductive uses, particularly by a waste full aristocracy.
The “crisis” brought about a new concentration of capital and cleared the way for the industrial revolution (Europe’s economy was healthier and more “progressive” when it recovered in the late seventeenth century) from the end of the seventeenth century.
Court vs. Country: Hugh Trevor-Roper
As the Courts grew, they generated increasing resentment among those left outside the charmed circle, not only because “outsiders” always dislike “insiders” but also because these particular “insiders” were seen as especially vulgar and distasteful.
Society clashed with the State, and the overweening central power was either brought down or rationally re-organized.
Rise of Europe and Imperialism
It is generally agreed that the Industrial Revolution began in England and spread to Western Europe
geographical proximity;
shared history;
similar institutions,
traditions and values
all benefited from exploitation of faraway peoples.
Adam Smith: wealth and prosperity of Europe due to the ‘dreadful misfortunes’ of non-Europeans.
Balance-of-Trade Doctrine
Colonial ventures by Europeans are often misunderstood as a means by which they gained sources of wealth alone.
They also gained and developed markets.
“The ordinary means... to encrease our wealth and treasure is by Forraign Trade, wherein wee must ever observe this rule; to sell more to strangers yearly than wee consume of theirs in value.”
- Thomas Mun, England’s Treasure
by Forraign Trade (1664)
Thomas Mun (1571-1641)
Director, East India Company
East India Company’s purchase of goods resulted in export of bullion
A Discourse of Trade (1621)
England’s Treasure by Forraign Trade (likely written in 1620s, pub. 1664)
Wealth as produced commodities; monetary movements depend upon condition of trade balance
Domestic trade zero-sum; international trade is the source of national wealth and power
Money wages must be kept low in order to stimulate labor to be productive
Low interest rates to encourage industry
Profits arise from buying cheap, selling dear
Josiah Child (1630-1699)
Governor, East India Company
Member of Parliament
Brief Observations Concerning Trade and Interest of Money (1668)
Reprinted anon. with minor additions as Discourse about Trade (1690) and as A New Discourse of Trade (1693)
Reduction of the legal interest rate in England from 6 percent to 4 percent
began by citing reasons for the wealth of Dutch Republic
argued that low interest rate in the Dutch Republic was primary cause of Dutch wealth
argued that past reductions in legal limit in England had been followed by increased English wealth
Sir William Petty (1623-1687)
Doctor of Medicine, Oxford, 1648
Professor of Anatomy, Oxford, 1650
Chair of Music, Gresham College, 1651
Served in Cromwell’s Army in Ireland, 1651-3
Medical officer; topographical surveyor; ended with large Irish estate
Founding member of Royal Society
Primary works:
A Treatise of Taxes and Contributions (1662)
The Political Arithmetick (1690)
The Political Anatomy of Ireland (1691)
Sir William Petty (1623-1687)
Sophisticated discussion of land and rents
natural rent is the surplus of corn
identifies this quantity with the natural surplus of silver mining (rate of returns are equalized)
argues that all things ought to be naturally valued in land or labor
uses rental value as basis for capital value of land
finally, notes that the interest is to the amount of money lent as the amount of rent is to the land that can be bought with money lent
John Law (1671-1729)
Money and Trade Considered; with a Proposal for Supplying the Nation with Money (1705)
Economic depression due to shortage of metallic money; requires paper currency as substitute
Money is Credit, Credit based in confidence
Money supply should be related to needs of trade
Expansion of money supply will permanently increase output and employment without raising prices
The interest rate is the price of money’s use; changes in the money supply affect interest rates and therefore investment
John Law (1671-1729)
Exiled to Europe
French debt massive & finances in dissaray as consequence of Louis XIV’s wars and policies
Regent Duke d’Orleans in Paris
1716, establishes Banque Générale
1717, establishes Compaigne d’Occident (Mississippi Company)
1718, Bank Générale becomes Banque Royale, and Mississippi Company absorbs other trading companies
1719, Massive note inflation and Stock market bubble in Company shares
Early 1720, Company and Banque united
Mid-1720, Price of shares collapse as exchange rate collapses due to bank-note inflation
Early Industry from 1600 to 1800
Cottage industry located “on-site” – proximity to energy sources.
Creates “Industrial hamlets”
Site specific advantages:
Water or wind power
Better transportation on good roads, then canals
Iron, the source of early military power meant that ironworks are a key strategic resource
Sheffield and Newcastle
Industrial Hamlet in Sheffield, Yorkshire
The Tilt Forge Wheel
Typical iron forge, small scale, based on water power.
Dependency on water power can be seen in the distribution of forges sites along the rivers around Sheffield.
From the author of Robinson Crusoe

This town of Sheffield is very populous and large, the streets narrow, and the houses dark and black, occasioned by the continued smoke of the forges which are always at work.
Here they make all sorts of cutlery-ware, but especially that of edge tools, knives, razors, axes etc. and nails; and here the only mill of the sort, which was in use in England for some time, was set up, for turning their grindstones.
The manufacture of hard ware is ... much increased... and they talk of 30000 men employed in the whole.

from A Tour Through the Whole Island of Great Britain by Daniel Defoe published in 1724

Sheffield and Newcastle?
How do you manage to move industry to economically favourable locations?
Free up site-specific machinery and energy sources such as woodfuel, coal, water and wind.
Ongoing deforestation.
Crowing on rivers.
Difficulty of deep-mining coal.

Newcomen’s mine engine: Original diagram

Coal Mining at Newcastle
“Sea Coal” from Newcastle
Driven by deforestation of England, 1600s, 1700s
Required energy to pump water from deep shafts
Required centralized, organized labor force: capitalism, unions
The Industrial Revolution
A revolution recognized by 1820
Changes occurred rather suddenly
Changes in the workplace
In 1860, Britain produced 20% of the entire world’s output of industrial goods
Two “caveats”
--scope of the revolution
--impact of the revolution
The Essential Nature of the Industrial Revolution
Dates vary according to nation
18th century origins
expanding Atlantic economy
flourishing English agriculture
effective central bank and credit system
stable and predictable government
mobile rural wage earners
Cotton Manufacturing in Manchester
Great location
By-product of overseas trade:
1 million bags of cotton imported into Liverpool in 1825
Various factors created a tremendous opportunity
New Technology
James Hargreaves’ “Spinning Jenny” (1765)
Richard Arkwright’s Water Frame (1769)
James Watt’s Steam Engine (1790’s)
Significance of the Steam Engine
Requires a specialized facility for its use near a ready source of coal
But definitively changed the location of factories, freeing the factory to be located in the most economical location
Economic Explosion Mixed with Fear
Availability of cotton clothing to all
Temporary bottlenecks meant higher wages for British weavers
Edmund Cartwright’s power loom (1785)
The cityscape of Manchester was dramatically transformed by 1800
New machines and factories were both fascinating and horrifying
The “Crowning” Invention: The Railroad
Superior to canals
The world’s first railway line ran from Manchester to Liverpool.
The first locomotive = The “Rocket” (1830)
Revolution in land transportation = dropping prices
Laborers shift to the city and factories
Cultural changes produced
A “feedback” mechanism
The Free Market
Transportation advances broke down traditional local markets
Significance of economic freedom
abolition of the Corn Laws in 1846
A free market in labor
The main goal = profit
Praise for the free market
Criticism: A sense of destruction and alienation
The Industrial Revolution on the Continent
Industrialized in a different pattern than Britain
Later industrialization as you move east
Entered industrialization at an advanced stage
Railroads and banks were instrumental
“State-managed capitalism”
Friedrich List’s Zollverein (Customs Union)
Continental Industrialization
Delayed industrialization was more explosive
Process of industrialization is far from automatic
Competition from cheap British goods
Complicated technology
Expensive technology
Shortage of laborers
Authorities suspicious at first
The New Working Class (cont)
Early attempts to organize workers
Combination Acts, 1799
1834 attempt at a national labor union by Robert Owen
Chartist movement, 1830’s and 1840’s

The New Working Class (cont)
Working conditions
long hours
unbroken routine
“Separate Spheres” for married and single women
Labor Discipline
low wages
Thomas Malthus (dangers of population growth)
David Ricardo and the “Iron Law of Wages” (trend is towards keeping labour population constant)
The New Working Class
“Speed up and stretch out” (faster machines, workers further apart)
Employment of women and children
Subcontracting to minimize risk of costs
Workers subjected to real danger
The notion of “hands” (de-humanization of workers).
Living Conditions in New Factory Cities
The symbolism of the West End and East End
Enormous population shifts
Problems of disease, alcoholism and crime
Occupied “row houses” near factories
No rise in “real” wages until after 1850
Middle-class reform efforts
Evolves into modern class politics and the crises of the twentieth century.

Ireland, Europe and the Atlantic World: Vikings in Ireland

Vikings in Ireland (in progress).

The first references to any kind of encampment made by the vikings in Ireland generally use the term 'longphort' which is not very well understood today. For greater depth, see John Sheehan's review or Mick Gibbons thoughts on the subject. In brief, the contemporary references use the same term to desribe a location used for a few days encampment and for a more permanent settlement. Some archaeologists have identified a particular form of enclosure along navigable rivers and suggested that they can be recognised as a distinctive group of sites which conform to the locations and broad dates during which the vikings were active.
Sites that have been described as longphorts include Ballykeeran Little on Lough Ree, Dunrally Fort, Co. Laois and Athlunkard, Co. Clare.
Woodstown in Co Waterford has been claimed, amongst other things, as a longphort (see here for one view of the interpretation of the archaeological evidence from this site).
It is also believed that there was a longphort in Dublin.

Dubhlinn: Pre-Viking Churches
Founded by St Maignenn in 7th century AD
Mentioned in Annals of Ulster 787 AD
Named in Felire Oengusso in 9th century AD
Sometimes suggested as the Ath Cliath
Has an abbot in 650 AD (Annals of Four Masters)
Named in 790 AD in Annals of Ulster
Dublin, c. 840
Dublin, c. 1000 AD
St Michael le Pole
First mentioned in 1121 (Book of Ui Maine)
In decline from 14th century.
Subject of excavations in the 1980s.
Produced equivocal evidence of pre-Viking occupation.
St Michael le Pole
St Peters on the Hill
Longphort: Dublin?
Ship Street Great burial
South Great George’s Street burials
South Great George’s Street burials
Golden Lane Burial
Viking cemeteries
Female Burials
Ballyholme, Co. Down
Rathlin Island
Larne Viking Burial
Kilmainham, Islandbridge and Dubhlinn
Temple Bar West
Fishamble Street: House plan
Dublin Viking Houses
Reconstructed Viking Houses
Viking Cork
VIKING WEXFORD: The Plant Remains.
VIKING WEXFORD: Food Sources and Diet.
Viking Limerick
Rural Viking sites: Dunnyneill Island
Cherrywood, Dublin
Is this another longhouse?
Underhoull, Norse longhouse, Shetland (Unst)
Hamar (Unst, Shetland)
Cherrywood, Norse phases
Large enclosure used for burials in the 6th-7th century AD.
Abandoned but apparently re-used in the 9th century AD.
Cherrywood, Norse phases
Several phases of structures built. The long house (shown in the plan below) couldn’t be dated directly but must be at least a century earlier than 11th century. Note the pit (F535).
Ringed pin. Like many of the finds it does not necessarily imply anything about the settlers identity.
Cherrywood: Whale bone plaque
Fragment from Kilmainham
Cherrywood: later Norse activity
Type 1
of those
in Dublin
Second phase of probable Norse settlement.
Must pre-date the 11th century but not by much.
Reminds us that the Norse and Vikings were rural people and founding towns, like Dublin, was unusual.
Finds included objects of bronze, iron, bone, glass, amber and antler.
Animal bone and other finds indicate farming and craft production.

Llanbedrgoch, Anglesey
Another find from Cherrywood, while unprovenanced, represents one of the reasons why the Norse are important in Ireland’s links to the outside world – the silver trade.

Plantations in Ireland, c.1550–1620

The Reformation
In 1536, Henry VIII broke with Papal authority, fundamentally changed Ireland.
While Henry VIII broke English Catholicism from Rome, his son Edward VI of England moved further, breaking with Papal doctrine completely.
While the English, the Welsh and, later, the Scots accepted Protestantism, the Irish remained Catholic.
This fact determined their relationship with the British state for the next four hundred years, as the Reformation coincided with a determined effort on behalf of the English state to re-conquer and colonise Ireland.
The religious schism meant that the native Irish and the (Roman Catholic) Old English were excluded from power in the new settlement.

The Dissolution
In 1534 Henry had Parliament authorize Thomas Cromwell, to "visit" all the monasteries (which included all abbeys, priories and convents), ostensibly to make sure their members were instructed in the new rules for their supervision by the King instead of the Pope, but actually to inventory their assets.
A few months later, in January 1535 when the consternation at having a lay visitation instead of a bishop's had settled down, Cromwell's visitation authority was delegated to a commission of laymen including Layton, Pollard and Moyle.
This phase is termed the "Visitation of the Monasteries."

The Dissolution
The abbeys of England, Wales and Ireland had been among the greatest landowners and the largest institutions in the kingdom.
Particularly in areas far from London, the abbeys were among the principal centres of hospitality, learning, patronage of craftspeople and sources of charity and medical care.
The removal of over eight hundred such institutions virtually overnight left many gaps.

Map showing Tudor and Stuart era plantations in Ireland.
Not a single event but a more drawn out process.
Abbeygate St, Galway (Gooche 1583)

Act of Parliament passed for plantation in Laois and Offaly.
Its main purpose was to secure the Pale.
After the rebellion of Gerald Fitzgerald (Earl of Desmond), it was decided to plant portions of counties Cork, Kerry, Limerick, and Waterford in 1586.
James Hamilton and Hugh Montgomery proposed a private, self-financed settlement of County Antrim and County Down to the recently-crowned King James I in 1606.
After the Flight of the Earls, James I decided to take the opportunity to plant Gaelic Ulster.
Some partial plantations also followed after 1610, mainly on the east bank of the Shannon and in the south-east.
Laois-Offaly Plantation
In 1556, during the reign of Mary Tudor, the decision was taken to plant the counties of Laois and Offaly.
Laois became known as Queen’s County and its main town, Fort Protector, was renamed Maryborough (Portlaoise).
Offaly became King’s County and its main town, Daingean, was renamed Philipstown after Mary’s husband, King Philip II of Spain.
For over fifty years these planters met with fierce resistance from the native Irish and the scheme was largely unprofitable.
Maryborough Fort 1565
Church at Lynally Glebe
Memorials at Lynally Glebe
Coffy Clearke 1684 monument
Ballylin Passion Plaque 1688
Legacy of Plantation
Richard’s map of Birr c. 1690
Legacy of the Plantation
Map of Banagherc. 1630

Munster Plantation
A major confiscation of native Irish lands in counties Cork, Kerry, Limerick, and Waterford by the English crown in 1586, followed the death in rebellion of Gerald Fitzgerald, 15th and last Earl of Desmond (c. 1533–1583).
Originally estimated at some 245,000 ha/600,000 acres, the surveys and claims were greatly overstated and ultimately only half that amount was actually confiscated for (Protestant) English colonization.
Desmond Rebellions
South of Ireland dominated by the Butlers of Ormonde and the Fitzgeralds of Desmond.
For recourse to native law, Queen Elizabeth had the Fitzgerald brothers Gerald, John and James arrested and detained in London while Thomas Butler was pardoned.
With the three principal leaders of the Fitzgeralds imprisoned, James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald rebelled in June 1569 by attacking a colony near Kerrycurihy.
In February 1573 the rebels surrendered.
About 700 rebels and supporters were executed.
Desmond Rebellions
James Fitzmaurice survived the executions by fleeing to mainland Europe.
In Europe he tried to gain support to restore Catholicism in Ireland and he landed with a combined Spanish-Italian army of 700 to 800 men in Dingle, County Kerry.
Several clans joined the Irish-Spanish-Italian army on its advance through Munster, destroying English properties as they went.
Fitzmaurice was killed near Tipperary.
At the end of 1579 they reached the east coast where the towns Youghal and Kinsale were plundered.
Desmond Rebellions
In 1580, Leinster insurgents, led by Feach MacHugh O'Byrne defeated and butchered a large English force in the Battle of Glenmalure.
But English forces in Munster had recaptured Youghal and hanged the Lord Mayor, Patrick Coppinger.
During the spring of 1581 the rebels found themselves blocked from the rest of Ireland and the main seaports. Like the combined Irish-Spanish-Italian force the English left a path a destruction behind.
Most insurgents surrendered on terms in the course of 1581 (O’Byrne wasn’t defeated until 1597).
Gerald Fitzgerald was killed in the Slieve Mish mountains in November 1583.
Impact of the Rebellion?
The Desmond dynasty was annihilated in the aftermath of the rebellions and their estates confiscated.
This gave the English authorities the opportunity to settle the province with colonists from England and Wales, who, it was hoped, would be a bulwark against further rebellions.
In 1584, a commission surveyed Munster, to allocate confiscated lands to English Undertakers, wealthy colonists who "undertook" to import tenants from England to work their new lands.
The Undertakers were also supposed to build new towns and provide for the defense of planted districts from attack.
After the rebellion
As well as the former Geraldine estates (spread through the modern counties Limerick, Cork, Kerry and Tipperary) the survey took in the lands belonging to other families and clans that had supported the rebellions in south-west Cork and Kerry.
However, the settlement here was rather piecemeal because the ruling clan – the MacCarthy Mór line argued that the rebel landowners were their subordinates and therefore the land really belonged to them.
Lands were therefore granted to some Undertakers and then taken away again when native lords like the MacCarthys appealed the dispossession of their dependents.
After the rebellion
Other sectors of the plantation were equally chaotic. Popham, the Attorney General for Ireland, imported 70 tenants from Somerset, only to find that that the land had already been settled by another undertaker and he was obliged to return them home.
Nevertheless, in theory at least, 500,000 acres (2,000 km²) were planted with English colonists.
North Devon Gravel-free and Gravel-tempered (17th)
North Devon Slipware and Sgraffito (17th)
After the rebellion
It was hoped that the settlement would attract in the region of 15,000 colonists, but a report made out in 1589 showed that the undertakers had imported only in the region of 700 English tenants between them.
It has been suggested that each tenant was the head of a household, and that he therefore represents 4-5 other people .
This would put the English population in Munster at nearer 3-4000, but it was still substantially below the projected figure.
Impact of the plantation?
The Munster Plantation was supposed to produce compact defensible settlements, but in fact, the English settlers were spread in pockets across the province, wherever land had been confiscated.
Initially the Undertakers were given detachments of English soldiers to protect them, but these were abolished in the 1590s.
As a result, when war came to Munster in 1598, most of the settlers were chased off their lands without a fight, taking refuge in the province’s walled towns or fled back to England.
When the rebellion was put down in 1601-03, the Plantation was re-constituted by the Governor of Munster, George Carew.
After the rebellion
Re-established following the rebels' defeat in 1601, the plantation grew steadily.
The extraction of timber and iron yielded large profits but the plantation areas also rapidly developed a strong export trade in cattle and sheep.
By 1641 the plantation was securely established with an expanding population that had grown from just over 3,000 in 1592 to an estimated 22,000.
Ironworking was successful in Munster (and elsewhere) as there appears to have been significant amounts of woodland (for fuel).
This also deprived the Irish of bases during war.

Duddon furnace, Furness, Cumbria

Blowing House

Araglin, co. Waterford
Distribution of surviving sites in south Munster
Hamilton and Montgomery
MacDonnell clan held property in the Glens of Antrim and Scotland, and in the first half of the 16th century this alarmed the Tudor monarchy.
After a series of failed military expeditions, Queen Elizabeth agreed to support an English colonial settlement in the region.
In 1571 Sir Thomas Smith, the Queen’s Principal Secretary of State was given a royal grant in Clandeboye and the Ards Peninsula.
He envisaged a settlement led by the younger sons of English gentlemen who would develop the urban and commercial infrastructure of the Ards and exploit its natural resources of fish and timber, financed through private investment and state sponsorship and led by Smith’s son, Thomas.
He encountered considerable opposition from Sir Brian MacPhelim O’Neill, the Gaelic lord of Clandeboyeand in October 1573, Smith was killed.
Hamilton and Montgomery
In 1573, Walter Devereux, the Earl of Essex, received a grant of land in north east Ireland.
He agreed to invest his own money and he envisaged taking control of an extensive territory from Belfast to Coleraine and establishing himself as Captain General of Ulster.
He recruited 400 adventurers but he spent most of his time in the militarily engaged in military encounters with Gaelic lords.
In 1574 he seized Sir Brian MacPhelim O'Neill, his wife and brother and arranged for their execution in Dublin Castle.
In 1575, he authorised a notorious raid on Rathlin Island by John Norris and Francis Drake.
Shortly afterwards, the Queen relieved him of his command and he died, possibly poisoned, in 1576.
Hamilton and Montgomery
Ayrshire Scots - James Hamilton and Hugh Montgomery - organised a massive plantation from the Lowlands of Scotland to County Antrim and County Down.
From May 1606, it is claimed they introduced over 10,000 Presbyterian Lowland Scots, claimed as the inspiration for James I's Virginia Plantation of 1607.
Antrim and Down were devastated and by the wars of the late 1500s and the owner of the lands, Con O’Neill, had been imprisoned in Carrickfergus Castle by the late Queen Elizabeth and was probably destined for execution.
Montgomery hatched an elaborate plan to both free O’Neill and to gain a Royal pardon for him from the newly-crowned King James I - and Montgomery’s payment was to be half of O’Neill’s lands.
However Hamilton found out and intervened in the negotiations - and won one third of the lands for himself.

Hamilton and Montgomery
Hamilton, from Dunlop in Ayrshire, was an academic and had been a founder of Trinity College in Dublin.
His new territory included the entire River Bann and the area around Coleraine, as well as a major part of County Down which took in Bangor, part of Comber, Killyleagh, Dundonald and some of the Ards Peninsula.
Montgomery was the 6th Laird of Braidstane and had been a mercenary in the wars in Holland.
His new territory included Newtownards, Donaghadee, part of Comber, Greyabbey and a large portion of the Ards Peninsula.

The Flight of the Earls
Nine Years War (1592-1601) effectively ended by the Treaty of Mellifont (1603).
Hugh O’Neill was forced to abandon Gaelic (Brehon law), allow royal judges and sheriffs into Ulster and give up control over other Gaelic chieftans.
From 1603, James I’s officials kept watch on O’Neill.
Fearing arrest he decided to flee and get help from Pope and Spain, in September 1607 with O’Donnell, Earl of Tyrconnell.

Plantation of Ulster
The Earls departure opened an opportunity for a radical extension of plantation policy to be introduced and followed through.
They (and their supporters) were found guilty of treason and their lands were confiscated.
Six counties were planted (Donegal, Coleraine/Derry, Tyrone, Fermanagh, Cavan & Armagh).
Monaghan was left to Gaelic Irish who remained loyal during war.
Their land was divided into estates of 1000, 1500 and 2000 acres.
The owners of the larger estates had to erect a castle and bawn for security and plant 48 able bodied men.
The rent was charged at a rate of 1 penny per acre.

Plantation of Ulster
Planters: no large land grants. Laws strictly enforced to prevent land falling into Gaelic Irish hands.
Land given to Church of Ireland, Trinity College, ‘royal’ schools, and to set up towns. Coleraine (Derry) given to London Guilds.
Undertakers: English or Scottish gentlemen. Estates of 400, 600, or 800 hectares.
Rent €6 per year per 400 hectares to the king.
Had to build either a castle or stone house and a bawn (stone-walled enclosure).
Had to take in English or Scottish tenants only.
Plantation of Ulster
Servitors: civil servants or army officers.
€10 per year per 400 hectares.
But allowed to take Irish tenants, who were willing to pay more rent than English/Scottish tenants.
So servitors earned more from their estates by taking Irish tenants.
Tully Castle

Iron Technology, Climate and Warfare

Basis of Iron Age climate records.

Iron Age in context.
See F. McDermott et al 2001 in the journal Science. Vol. 294. no. 5545, pp. 1328 - 1331

Climate during the Iron Age
Based on this data, temperature gradients during the Iron Age are within reasonable bands compared to today.
There is no evidence to suggests a ‘cold snap’ or other catastrophic event, despite a relatively narrow tree ring event at 207 BC and volcanic acid layers in ice cores at 210+/-30 BC. Tree rings and layers in the ice core provide data that is an approximate of the climate at that time.
Comparison of two pollen sequences from the midlands (Corlea, Longford; Derryville, Tipperary).
Does this suggest a climatic problem around 207 BC?
Derryville: Pollen Diagram
Climate information and archaeological data
Grey bands equate to dry episodes.
Graphs indicate growth of bog oaks (line) and lake oaks (black), with peaks reflecting drier conditions.
Turney et al. 2006 Journal of Archaeological Science Vol 33, 34-38
Iron Age Ireland
Iron Technology
Chemical symbol for iron is Fe
Naturally occuring mostly as oxides or carbonates:
Iron ore
Naturally occurs in many geological strata, chalk, lakes, bogs:
Earth's crust is 5% iron (comapre 50 parts per million of copper and only 3 ppm tin)
Iron ore more plentiful on the surface than copper
Main drawback – more difficult to process, requiring higher temperatures.

Iron Ores: even distribution
Iron Technology
The production process produces a bloom containing iron, which is forged and hammered so that it is purged of as much waste material as possible, which congeals to form lumps of metallic rock known as slag (top left).
The bloom is then cleaned and by heating and quenching it it can be hammered out into ingots (bottom right) or shaped to form objects.
What traces would this leave?
Ore Preparation
Crushing Ore: Bedrock Mortars
Heating Ore: Charcoal
Iron technology: adding Oxygen
Producing iron ore requires a furnace (powered by charcoal) to achieve the required temperatures.
Basically, when you have crushed the ore, you then heat it to 1538°C at which point iron melts.
Smelting Ore: Furnaces
Shaft Furnaces
Furnaces do leave some traces that can be recovered during excavation.
Early Iron working in Ireland
Smithing hearth at Rossan 6, dated to 820-780 BC
Bloom smithing/iron working hearth at Griffinstown 3, dated to 420-360 BC
Bowl furnace at Johnstown 3, Meath, dated to 420-360 BC
Bowl furnace at Kinnegad 2, dated to 400-340 BC
Smithing hearth at Rossan 6, dated to 370-50 BC
Bowl furnace at Hardwood 3, dated 380-60 BC
More information on these sites at
Primary Smithing
Secondary Smithing
Smelting and Smithing Slags
Hartshill in England produced evidence suggesting the presence of iron working as early as the 10th BC.
It was in the form of tiny fragments of hammerscale, some less than a millimetre in size (shown in the image on the right), rather than furnaces or slag.
Hartshill, West Berkshire, England
Iron Age Iron Working in Ireland

Sites with clear evidence of Iron Age iron working are relatively rare in Ireland although some examples, such as Rath na Riogh, at Tara, are known.

The complex and dangerous process of transforming “stone” to metal provides a special position for blacksmiths in many societies
There may be ceremonies and rituals associated with the process
Blacksmiths are often seen as figures with supernatural powers

Early Warriors
La Frondelle: the goddess Epona
Defended Hilltop sites – Hillforts
Most perceptions of Celtic warfare are driven by Classical accounts, many of which are considerably later than the earliest sites.
Murus Gallicus, according to Caesar

Celtic Migrations: timeline
Allia and Rome
Celts in War

The Romans faced by the Celts
One days march; 15-20 miles. Overrall length of column 22.5 miles
Average speed; 3 miles per hour
Total army makeup- based on a six legion army;
Legionary troops;30,000
Ancillary troops;3,500
Gallic Cavalry Wing;4,000
Roman cavalry;720
Total mules;10,000
The Romans faced by the Celts
Legion Staff- ancillary troops, clerks, technicians, specialists, reserve tentage, cavalry equipment, field hospital, medical staff, veterinary staff, engineering stores, workshops.
Caesar maintained that at any one time there were between 300-500 sick
Food: Daily requirement 3lbs per day per man. Each man carried 10 days ration
Artillery included: siege engines, Ballistae, Caterpults and Onagers
Caesar against the Helvetii (58 BC)
Celeritas and Clemencia (Caesar)
“ The battle ended, that he might be able to come up with the remaining forces, he procures a bridge to be made across the Saone. The Helvetii, confused by his sudden arrival, when they had found that he had effected in one day what they themselves had difficulty in accomplishing in twenty….send ambassadors to him.”

“ He ordered the Helvetii to return to their territories from which they had come and as there was nothing at home whereby they might support their hunger, he commanded the Allobroges to let them have a plentiful supply of corn.”
Keeping a Tally
“The sum of all amounted to …368,000.When the census of those who returned home was taken, as Caesar commanded the number was found to be 110,000.” Book 1 (Bello Gallico)

“ On the basis of Caesar’s report, the Senate granted him a Supplicatio of fifteen days.. The Senate was paying him respect for the Conquest of the whole of Gaul. At the same time, it was indirectly confirming his command and the legitimacy of his wars. It was honouring him in such a way that the transgression of 59 were bound to pale. Its decision, thus represented a quite extraordinary success for Caesar, however little it meant in material terms”. C Meier

Caesar against the Venetii
The Roman naval tactics consisted mainly in either propelling a vessel with great force against a rival and crushing the side, or in catching hold of the hostile craft with hooks, pulling alongside, springing over on it, and settling the conflict with a hand-to-hand fight. In the sea-fight with the Veneti, who had only sailing vessels, the Roman sailors crippled the enemy's ships by cutting down the sail-yards
Delegation, Innovation and Recognition
“ One thing provided by our men was of great hooks inserted into and fastened upon poles….When the ropes were caught by them and pulled…the yards necessarily fell down, so that all hope of the Gallic vessels of the Gallic vessels depending on their sails was taken from them”

“The rest of the contest depended on courage; in which our men decidedly had the advantage; and the more so, because the whole action was carried on in the sight of Caesar and the entire army; so that no act, a little more valiant than ordinary, could pass unobserved”.
Defensive Works at Bourges
The Battle at Gergovia
A Rare Defeat?
In 52 BC Gergovia was the stronghold of Vercingetorix. It is famous for being the only place where Julius Caesar was defeated in the Gaulish wars. After conquering Avaricum, Caesar took six legions onward to Gergovia where he attempted a siege. He was outnumbered when the Aedui, formerly the Romans' allies, surprised Caesar by joining with Vercingetorix. As Caesar's army marched towards the great Arverni hillfort of Gergovie, Vercingetorix was setting out with his own army on the other side of the river Allier, breaking every bridge along the way to be sure the Romans could not cross over. Caesar, however, hid two legions in the woods. After Vercingetorix moved on, they rebuilt one of the bridges and went on to attempt the siege of Gergovia. The assault failed. Over 700 soldiers and 40 centurions were lost in the battle before Caesar drew back. Encouraged by this victory, the Gauls persisted in their revolt until their final defeat at Alesia.
The Battle of Alesia

Intelligence and leadership.
“ As the action was carried on in sight of all, neither a brave nor cowardly act could be concealed; both the desire of praise and the fear of ignominy, urged on each party to valor….Caesar sends at first young Brutus and afterwards Caius Fabius, his liutenant…….His arrival being known from the colour of his robe….the enemy joined battle.”
“Caesar on learning these proceedings from the deserters and captives, adopted the following system of fortification”.
Archaeological evidence at Alesia
Orange, Vaucluse
Caesar’s Siege Works at Alesia
Dun Aonghusa, Inis Mór, Aran Islands

Iron Age Ireland

Quernstones – Beehive quern

Finding an Invisible People

Iron Age Research Project
Recent large–scale development activity is bringing new Iron Age sites to light at an increasing rate and presents us with an opportunity to resolve some of the key issues of this enigmatic period. Much of the relevant information resides in the considerable body of unpublished literature such as excavation reports.

The aim of the project is to collate, synthesise and analyse this evidence and to examine it in the context of the major thematic framework identified in the recent Heritage Council report on Research Needs in Irish Archaeology. Hence, in the later stages of the project issues of regionality, social and regional identity, economic organisation, landscape use and cultural change from the Bronze Age through to the Early Medieval period will be addressed.

A survey of archaeological consultancies, consultation of the NRA database of sites which is currently under development and a survey of the Excavations Bulletin 1970–2004 and the published literature. All excavated structures or features that have produced radiocarbon or dendrochronological dates between 900 cal. BC and AD cal. 400 or artefactual evidence for an Iron Age date will be recorded. These sites will be categorised by morphology and associated evidence for their function and entered into a searchable database. Based on this assessment a preliminary cultural characterisation will be developed.
Parameters of sites included in the study
Excavated sites which can be securely dated (radiocarbon, dendro, artefacts) to the Iron Age (ie. 700BC to AD400)

Aim is to characterise Iron Age sites – not end up with a distribution map of Iron Age activity of any form

Late Bronze Age sites (ca 900 BC onwards)

The catalogue also includes excavated sites that are possibly of Iron Age date, as for example identified by problematic associations of artefacts or stratigraphy

1.Late Bronze Age (end)
900-700 BC
2. Plateau/Early Iron Age
700-400 BC
3. Developed Iron Age
4. Late Iron Age
0BC/AD – AD 400

Biases Data gathering ie. which companies have responded (strong NRA bias through database and contractors) Recognisability - dating strategies (how many dates are obtained, ind features vs structures, favouring of metalworking etc.
Biases Data gathering ie. which companies have responded (strong NRA bias through database and contractors) Recognisability - dating strategies (how many dates are obtained, ind features vs structures, favouring of metalworking etc.
Multiperiod sites
Multiperiod sites
Multiperiod sites


Finds and activities
Bronzes, wood, glass, flint and antler artefacts
(cf pottery!)

Finds and activities
Bronzes, wood, glass, flint and antler artefacts
(cf pottery!)

Site types IA
Later IA with finds Burials
Burial in Ireland
Limited amount of information – burials without gravegoods or monuments not recognisable

Cremation in ring-barrows, ring-ditches and various other forms of monuments

Later centuries BC and early centuries AD

Carbury Hill, Site B, Co. Kildare
Grannagh, Co. Galway
Carowjames, Co.Mayo
Ballydavis, Co. Laois

cremation in bronze box fibula (Nauheim type), wire, 80 beads, stone and blue, green and yellow glass beads iron blade, nails, bronze bracelet fragment, mulitphased, layers containing artefacts, charcoal and cremated bones change with sterile layer> repeated activity

Co. Limerick
Depth of 0.5m 14 token cremations in ditch fill bone plaque bronze spiral ring
Carn More, Dundalk, Co. Louth
Ballykeel South, Co. Clare
Dooey, Co. Donegal
phase 4
70 extended inhumations, EW
no burial goods
early c. AD

Carrowbeg North, Co. Galway
MBA barrow
4 secondary inhumations in silted ditch
Female skeleton with locket and bead anklet
Kiltierney, Co.Fermanagh
Knowth, Co.Meath

Sense of ancestry
Remember Tara and other royal sites
> Lough Crew, Co. Meath

Tara: Neolithic to Iron Age
Rath, Co.Meath
Lough Crew, Co.Meath, Cairn T
Turoe, Co.
Kilcluggin, Galway
Derrykeighan, Co. Antrim

Panels, ears/domed trumpet
100BC-100AD? Double curved lines linking circle motifs, ears
Broighter and Turoe: domed trumpets, peltate patterns, voids
Castlestrange, Co. Roscommon
Tara, Lia Fáil
Stelae in Brittany

Raffin, Co. Meath
scattered cremations?
only part of society received formal burial
Lambay Island
Shield, sword and ornaments, iron disc

Beaded torc, northern England
Roman fibulae bracelets
Lambay Island?
Tacitus, Agricola
Quinto expeditionum anno nave prima transgressus ignotas ad id tempus gentis crebris simul ac prosperis proeliis domuit; eamque partem Britanniae quae Hiberniam aspicit copiis instruxit, in spem magis quam ob formidinem, si quidem Hibernia medio inter Britanniam atque Hispaniam sita et Gallico quoque mari opportuna valentissimam imperii partem magnis in vicem usibus miscuerit.
Still invisible?


Dindsenchus (Placename Lore)
Derivation of the Name given in the 9th century Senas Cormaic (king-bishop of Cashel who died in 908).

earliest form

Triad 54
Trí tellaige Hérenn: tellach Temrach, tellach Caisil, tellach Crúachan.

The three households of Ireland: the household of Tara, the household of Cashel, the household of Croghan
Triad 202
Tréde neimthigedar ríg: fonaidm ruirech, feis Temrach, roimse inna fhlaith.

Three things that constitute a king: a contract with (other) kings, the feast of Tara, abundance during his reign.
Togail Bruidne Da Derga The Destruction of Da Derga’s Hostel
- Conaire, King of Tara, is subject to a number of taboos (geis) which state that he cannot:
- pass Tara on his right hand side
- pass Brega on his left
- hunt the swans of Cernae (either Carnes near Duleek or Triad 9 Tech commairce Hérenn: Tech Cairnig for sligid Assail.The Sanctuary of Ireland: the House of Cairnech upon the Road of Asal.2 )
- Stay away from Tara for longer than 9 days

1st edition OS
Placenames assigned by O’Donovan.

Rath na Riogh
measures 318 m north-south by 264 m east-west
Enclosed by an internal ditch and external bank
Name means ‘the Fort of the Kings’.
Rath na Riogh
Rath of the Synods (blue marks enclosure noted during geophysical survey)

Mound of the Hostages (Dumha na nGiall)
An Forradh (and Lia Fail)
Teach Chormaic
Rath of the Synods

WB Yeats and the British-Israelites
Navan Fort
Broad parallels between Navan Fort (top), Rath of the Synods (bottom left) and Dun Ailline (bottom right).


The Stone of Scone
Lia Fail
Recorded stones at Tara include Dall, Dorcha, Maol, Bloc and Bluicne (the two on the right). The taller is sometimes known as Admonans Pillar.

On a stone in the churchyard.

The present church dates from 1822; the original church on this site was founded by the Hospitallers of Saint John in about 1212 AD, part of one of the walls of the original is still standing.

'King O'Connell at Tara' This cartoon entitled 'King O'Connell at Tara' was printed in Punch magazine, 26 August 1843, was drawn by 'Shallaballa'. The Irish peasants bring their buttermilk and scrawny pigs as offerings to O'Connell, who rests on the devil's back, with his foot on the British Constitution. The scale under his arm is labelled "Justice to Ireland," and is tipped by "Daniel's Allowance." On the floor nearby is the "Royal Plunder Chest." In the summer of 1843, his monster meeting at Tara, where he called for the repeal of the Union, was attended by an estimated 750,000 people.

Mound of the Hostages

Rath Laoghaire

Claonferta and Rath Grainne
Banqueting Hall

Triad 120 (Yellow Book of Lecan) Tréde neimthigedar gobainn: bir Neithin, fulacht na Morrígna, inneóin in Dagda. Three things that constitute a blacksmith: Nethin's spit, the cooking-spit of the Morrigan, the Dagda's griddle.

Giraldus Cambrensis

Triad 202
Three things that constitute a king: a contract with (other) kings, the feast of Tara, abundance during his reign.

View of Skryne
St Patrick
Arrives on the eve of Easter, lights paschal fire on Hill of Slane.
When the ‘druids’ at Tara saw the light from Slane, they warned King Laoghaire that he must extinguish it or it would burn forever.
Patrick summoned to Tara (on the way singing the hymn "Saint Patrick's Breastplate“).
Impresses Laoghaire who lets him Christianise.
Early Christians…
Christianity was probably first introduced to Ireland sometime at the very end of the 4th century AD or early in the 5th century AD
The earliest church sites are not easy to identify or date
Sometimes only placename evidence survives

Early Christians
Earliest church developed as members of the aristocracy were converted by the earliest missionary/converts (such as St. Patrick)
Initial Christianisation appears to occur in the south half of Ireland in the late fourth or early fifth century AD and spreads to the northern half by around 450-460 AD
Dating evidence suggests the earliest stones with ogham inscriptions date to around the 4th century AD.
Ogham (map)
Main areas of distribution may reflect earliest Christianisation.
Early Ecclesiastical Centres
As the earliest churches were associated with the aristocracy, the early parish and bishopric boundaries tend to be similar to the early kingdoms or chiefdoms in Ireland
As a result – the power of bishops was confined to their own kingdom

Early Christians
Monastic sites and hermitage emerge that are independent of the parish-bishopric system
They appear to have been given separate endowments and are economically independent
Successful monasteries are able to set up or acquire additional monasteries and increase their prestige
This system survives in various forms until the arrival of the Normans in the 12th century AD

Early Christians
These early Christian centres often survive today as large enclosures, sometimes with multiple concentric earthworks or ditches.
Today these are often only visible as crop marks from the air.
In some cases, only the placename evidence survives:
Cell often anglicised as Kill
Domhnaig often anglicised as Donagh or Downey
Teampall often anglicised as Temple

Univallate (i.e. one enclosing bank).
Example here is from Killyliss in Tyrone.
Bivallate (i.e. two enclosing banks).
Example here is from Lisnageeha in Tipperary.
Multivallate (i.e. more than two enclosing banks).
Example here is from Garranes in Cork.
Platform or raised ringfort
Example here is from Rathmullan in Down.
Dressogagh, Armagh + Whiteford, Down
Ballinderry 2, Offaly: crannog
Corofin, Clare

Carn More, County Louth (from
Newtownbalregan, County Louth

Horizontal Mills